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Qualitative Data Collected by Variable for France

Country Laws and Regulations

General Law protecting the Rights of Persons with Disabilities:

  • Law No. 2005-102 for equal rights and opportunities, participation and citizenship of people with disabilities: Law No. 2005-102
  • Law No. 2005-102 for equal rights and opportunities, participation and citizenship for persons with disabilities: Law No.2005-102 Article 47 of the 2005 disability law: Law No. 2005-102_Article 47
  • Article 106, Law No. 2016-1321 dated October 7, 2016 for a digital Republic: Article 106, Law No. 2016-1321
  • Article 80 of the 2018 Law No. 2018-771 as of 5 September 2018 relates to the freedom to choose one's professional future: Article 80 of the 2018 Law No. 2018-771
  • This law transposes two European directives related to digital accessibility. The associated decree which outlines the specifics in relation to the accessibility of public ICTs was published on 24 July 2019, as follows:
  • Decree No. 2019-768 of 24 July 2019 refers to the accessibility for online communication services for persons with disabilities: Decree No. 2019-768

Definition of ICT accessibility:


Definition of Reasonable Accommodation:

  • Article 1, law n°2008-496 passed on May 27, 2008: Law No. 2008-496
  • Additional information is found on page 9 in the following document: Rights of Persons with Disabilities
  • The term “reasonable accommodation” is used in relation to providing equal access to employees with disabilities. Workers with disabilities are entitled to adjustments and arrangements in their working hours and shifts, and in the tools they need to do their job (including hardware and software). This is outlined in the Law No. 2005-102: Law No. 2005-102

In addition, article 106 of the Law No. 2016-1321 dated October 7, 2016 for a digital republic in relation to public sector employees: Law No. 2016-1321

These measures include the equipping of all digital tools contributing to the accomplishment of the agents' mission, such as business and office software as well as mobile devices.

Universal Service Obligation includes Persons with Disabilities:

  • Law No. 2005-102 of February 11, 2005 for equal rights and opportunities, participation and citizenship for people with disabilities
  • Law No. 86-1067 of September 30, 1986 relates to the freedom of communication: Law No. 86-1067
  • Law No. 2015-990 of August 6, 2015 for growth, activity and equal economic opportunities: Law No. 2015-990

Country Capacity to Implement

  • Government agency for Persons with Disabilities:

Ministry of State for Persons with Disabilities, part of the Prime Minister Cabinet: Ministry of State for Persons with Disabilities

National Advisory Council for Persons with Disabilities (Conseil National Consultatif des Personnes Handicapées, CNCPH): National Advisory Council for Persons with Disabilities

  • Government agency for accessible ICTs:

Interdepartmental Directorate for Digital and the State Information and Communication System (DINSIC, Direction Interministérielle du Numérique et du Système d’Information et de Communication de l’État), part of the General Secretariat for the Modernization of Public Action (SGMAP, Secrétariat Général pour la Modernisation de l’Action Publique)

On 25 October 2019, the DINSIC became the DINUM (Direction Interministérielle du Numérique): DINUM

See related decree here: Decree

  • Process to involve DPOs in ICT accessibility policy making:

National Advisory Council for People with Disabilities (Conseil National Consultatif des Personnes Handicapées, CNCPH): National Advisory Council for Persons with Disabilities

  • Country refers to international ICT accessibility standards:

Article 47 of the French Disability Law No. 2005-102 of February 11, 2005 for equal rights and opportunities, participation and citizenship for persons with disabilities

It recognizes that all public websites must follow international accessibility guidelines in accordance with European recommendations (namely ISO/WCAG 2.0). The French digital accessibility standard, the French General accessibility reference for administrations (Référentiel Général d'Accessibilité pour les Administrations, RGAA), is based on and directly transposable onto WCAG 2.0.

In the Summer of 2019, an updated version of the French digital accessibility standard was published: the RGAA-4

  • ICT accessibility courses available at universities or professional education services:

MOOC on Digital Accessibility, INRIA (French Institute for Research in Computer Science and Automation):Digital Accessibility Courses_Session 1, Digital Accessibility Courses_Session 2

Country Policy and Programs Outcomes

  • Web:

-Country Policies: In 2014 the DINSIC launched a Digital Accessibility Program (“Programme Accessibilité Numérique”) which involved updating the RGAA (national accessibility standard for public websites), launching a new certification program (“labeled e-accessible”) and providing extensive documentation to support developers, contributors and auditors in their efforts to produce accessible digital services: RGAA_Version 4 Resources: Resources

In parallel, the Public Service Integration Fund for People with Disabilities (FIPHFP, Fonds d’Insertion des Personnes Handicapées de la Fonction Publique) offers financial support for public organizations seeking to improve the accessibility of their digital tools and services: Public Service Integration Fund for People with Disabilities

  • TV and multimedia:

-Country Programs: The French Ministry of Culture has tasked the Forum Mobiles Medias (Forum Mobiles Medias) to set up a dialogue between manufacturers of TV sets, smart boxes, operators and channels, to address the problem of accessibility of terminals and content.

  • Mobile telephony:

-Country Policy: According to the French telecommunications body (ARCEP):

Advances in the field of mobile phone accessibility are a two-way voluntary and regulatory approach:

  • Particularly through the French Association of Mobile Operators (AFOM), it is important to note that mobile operators and equipment manufacturers act individually, offering for example in a competitive way specially adapted services, or by selecting the terminals they distribute among those they deem most appropriate. This competition is necessary for the sector.
  • In 2017, a decree on the Accessibility of Telecommunications for Persons with Disabilities was published on May 9, 2017: Decree No. 2017-875
  • E-books and digital contents:

-Country Policy: Law No. 2006-961 of August 1, 2006 relating to copyright and related rights in the information society introduced a copyright exception to support persons with disabilities. This allows authorized organisations to make and distribute copies of works in accessible formats without prior authorisation from the rights holders. A decree passed on December 19, 2008 and fixed the terms for the exception, which mainly concerned people with visual impairments, and the modalities for transferring and storing digital files securely between publishers and authorized adaption agencies. The PLATON secure server became operational in June 2010.

This law was reinforced by the Law No. 2016-925 of July 7, 2016 relating to the freedom of creation, architecture and heritage (Loi pour Liberté de la Création, à l’Architecture et au Patrimoine, LCAP). The LCAP law and its associated decrees amend the copyright exception to support persons with disabilities:

  • It provides a broader understanding of print disabilities, and includes learning disabilities such as dyslexia and dyspraxia
  • Publishers are required to provide “structured” source files when they have them
  • It is possible to share adapted files with organizations from other countries, but under conditions that are more restrictive than those stipulated in the Marrakesh Treaty
  • Article 81 transposes the Marrakesh Treaty and makes provision for non-profit organizations to make copies of works in accessible formats (hard copy and digital) for people with print disabilities and to share them across borders: Article 81
  • Decree No. 2018-1200 dated December 20, 2018 on exemption from copyright, related protection and database protection in favor of persons with disabilities. This decree removes a number of restrictions that were imposed in the initial texts. It is no longer necessary for individuals and organizations to seek “prior consent before requesting, adapting and sharing accessible documents with non-profit organizations from other member states”. Entities are still required to register on a list of state-approved adaptation organizations, even if the decree makes provision for a more simplified process.

Decree No. 2018-1200

-Country Program: The French National Library (BnF) has also incorporated digital accessibility into its digitization efforts, with the production of XML DTBook (XML Daisy) and accessible ePub3 for public domain titles (currently around 1300 titles available via the BnF’s Gallica platform).

Private Programs

BrailleNet develops tools and services that facilitate the production, distribution and reading of accessible digital books.

The BNFA is a digital library service for persons with print disabilities. It is an initiative of BrailleNet in partnership with the Group of Blind or Partially Sighted Intellectuals (Groupement des Intellectuels Aveugles ou Amblyopes) and the Association for the Blind and Visually Impaired (Association pour le Bien des Aveugles et des Malvoyants). Today over 4500 subscribers have access to over 40,000 titles in audio, digital Braille and large print. Access to the library is free and available to those persons who are classified as with disabilities according France’s copyright exemption law.

As part of its Research & Development activities, BrailleNet is involved in building tools to support accessible book production, such as DAISY Pipeline software. The OPALINE project (“Outils pour l’accessibilité des livres numériques “, or tools for the production of accessible digital books) funded by the French Public Investment Bank (French Banque Publique d’Investissement) launched in 2017. It aims to develop a suite of tools designed to improve productivity of accessible digital books.

Resources: BNFA


BrailleNet has just started a new project, Supporting Inclusive Digital Publishing Through Training, with Dutch and Austrian organisations as part of the Erasmus+ Programme. More details here: Supporting Inclusive Digital Publishing Through Training

  • Promoting the Internet Availability and Usage among Persons with Disabilities:

-Country Program: The Digital Society Mission

  • Inclusive ICTs for all in education:

-Country Policy: The French Education Department has developed best practice guidelines for digital accessibility in education (bonnes pratiques pour l'accessibilité et l'adaptabilité des ressources numériques pour l'École (A2RNE): Best Practices Guidelines for Digital Accessibility in Education

In 2015, the French government signed a digital accessibility charter (Charte pour une meilleure prise en compte de l’accessibilite dans les formations numeriques) with several digital schools to ensure that digital accessibility becomes a component in its programs: Accessibility Charter

  • Enabling ICTs for all in employment:

-Country Policy: Under the terms of French employment law, public and private organizations with a work force of more than 20 employees must hire 6 % of workers with disabilities. Employers are provided with 3 options to meet this target:

  • Hiring workers with disabilities as employees
  • Subcontracting workers from disability organizations
  • Paying a contribution fee to AGEFIPH (“Association de Gestion du Fonds pour l'Insertion Professionnelle des Personnes Handicapées“’ Fund for the Professional Inclusion of Persons with Disabilities), an organization dedicated to furthering professional inclusion in the private sector, or for public sector employers this fee goes to the FIPHFP (Fonds pour l'Insertion des Personnes Handicapées dans la Fonction Publique).

It is this third option that contributes financially to improving, promoting and supporting inclusive ICTs for employment.

The French employment agency for job seekers (Pôle Emploi) with the support of the FIPHFP has been working on the accessibility of its digital offering.

  • E-government and Smart Cities for all:


  • Enabling Assistive Technologies and ICTs for independent living:


  • Procurement of accessible public goods and services for all citizens: